Crucial Bills And Amendments for IAS Prelims 2017: The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) will conduct the civil services (CS) preliminary examination on June 18 this year. It is one of the most esteemed and toughest exams in the country. With a success rate of 0.1- 0.3 percent of the total percentage of candidates who apply, it is really difficult to nail the examination.
This article covers some of the most important Bills and Amendments which will help you for your upcoming IAS Prelims Preparation.
Crucial Bills And Amendments for IAS Prelims 2017: PNDT Act, Mental Health Care Bill, 2013
Today, we will discuss the next two bills. Below mentioned is the explanation of the the next two topics i.e PNDT Act, Mental Health Care Bill, 2013′.
Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act, 1994
Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act, 1994 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to stop female foeticides and arrest the declining sex ratio in India. The act banned prenatal sex determination.
The main purpose of enacting the act is to ban the use of sex selection techniques after conception and prevent the misuse of prenatal diagnostic technique for sex selective abortion.
Offences under this act include conducting or helping in the conduct of prenatal diagnostic technique in the unregistered units, sex selection on a man or woman, conducting PND test for any purpose other than the one mentioned in the act, sale, distribution, supply, renting etc. of any ultra sound machine or any other equipment capable of detecting sex of the foetus. Main provisions in the act are
- The Act provides for the prohibition of sex selection, before or after conception.
- It regulates the use of pre-natal diagnostic techniques, like ultrasound and amniocentesis by allowing them their use only to detect
- genetic abnormalities
- metabolic disorders
- chromosomal abnormalities
- certain congenital malformations
- sex linked disorders.
- No laboratory or centre or clinic will conduct any test including ultrasonography for the purpose of determining the sex of the foetus.
- No person, including the one who is conducting the procedure as per the law, will communicate the sex of the foetus to the pregnant woman or her relatives by words, signs or any other method.
- Any person who puts an advertisement for pre-natal and pre-conception sex determination facilities in the form of a notice, circular, label, wrapper or any document, or advertises through interior or other media in electronic or print form or engages in any visible representation made by means of hoarding, wall painting, signal, light, sound, smoke or gas, can be imprisoned for up to three years and fined Rs. 10,000.
- The Act has also made mandatory in all ultrasonography units, the prominent display of a signboard that clearly indicates that detection/revelation of the sex of the foetus is illegal. Further, all ultrasound scanning machines have to be registered and the manufacturers are required to furnish information about the clinics and practitioners to whom the ultrasound machinery has been sold.
- The act empowered the appropriate authorities with the power of civil court for search, seizure and sealing the machines and equipments of the violators. The act mentions that no person, including the one who is conducting the procedure as per the law, will communicate the sex of the foetus to the pregnant woman or her relatives by words, signs or any other method.
- Any person who puts an advertisement for pre-natal and pre-conception sex determination facilities in the form of a notice, circular, label, wrapper or any document, or advertises through interior or other media in electronic or print form or engages in any visible representation made by means of hoarding, wall painting, signal, light, sound, smoke or gas, can be imprisoned for up to three years and fined Rs. 10,000. The PCPNDT act mandates compulsory registration of all diagnostic laboratories, all genetic counselling centres, genetic laboratories, genetic clinics and ultrasound clinics.
Mental Health Care Bill, 2013
The Mental Health Care Bill – 2013 has been introduced in Rajya Sabha and is now waiting for enactment. The Bill entails unprecedented measures to be undertaken by the Government ensuring everyone right to access mental health care and treatment from services run or funded by the Government.
The Government is to meet the manpower requirement of mental health professionals according to international standard within a period of ten years.
- Aims to provide for mental healthcare and services for persons with mental illness and ensure these persons have the right to live a life with dignity by not being discriminated against or harassed.
- The Bill repeals the existing Mental Health Act, 1987, which is vastly different in letter and spirit. The Act of 1987 had been widely criticized for proving to be inadequate to protect the rights of mentally ill persons.
- The Bill states that every person would have the right to specify how he would like to be treated for mental illness in the event of a mental health situation.
- An individual will also specify who will be the person responsible for taking decisions with regard to the treatment, his admission into a hospital, etc.
- The Bill guarantees every person the right to access mental health care and treatment from the government. This right includes affordable, good quality, easy access to services such as minimum mental health services in every district.
- People with mental illness will also have the right to equality of treatment and protection from inhuman and degrading treatment.
- Under the current law, attempting suicide is punishable with a considerable fine or imprisonment up to one year. This Bill decriminalises suicide. It states that whoever attempts suicide will be presumed to be under severe stress.
- The Bill requires that every insurance company shall provide medical insurance for mentally ill persons on the same basis as is available for physical illnesses.
Here, we conclude our article on Crucial Bills And Amendments for IAS Prelims 2017. Stay tuned with us for the rest of the topic that we will discuss day by day.