IAS Important Topics on International Current Affairs: ISIS attack in Kabul

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IAS Important Topics on International Current Affairs: ISIS attack in Kabul

IAS Important Topics on International Current Affairs: The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) will conduct the civil services (CS) preliminary examination on June 18 this year. It is one of the most esteemed and toughest exams in the country. With a success rate of 0.1- 0.3 percent of the total percentage of candidates who apply, it is really difficult to nail the examination.

As you know, On 10th May 2017, we have shared IAS Prelims 2017 Important Topics on International current affairs which will help you prepare for your upcoming examination. Here is the topic that we have discussed on 12th May, Click on the link below to explore.

IAS Important Topics on International Current Affairs: South China Sea Arbitration

Let us move forward with our next topic i.e. ISIS attack in Kabul.

 

IAS Important Topics on International Current Affairs

Today we will discuss the fourth topic i.e ISIS attack in Kabul. Below mentioned is the explanation of the said topic.

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ISIS attack in Kabul

At least 80 people have been killed and hundreds injured after two suicide bombers struck a peaceful protest in Kabul by a Shia minority group.

Responsibility for the attack, which appears to have targeted a demonstration by the Hazara minority, was claimed by Islamic State via the group’s news agency, Amaq. If true, it would mark the first attack by Isis in Kabul, and its largest ever in Afghanistan. The demonstration was organized by ethnic Hazaras demanding that a major regional power line be rerouted through their impoverished home province. Most Hazaras are Shiite Muslims but most Afghans are Sunni.

Hazaras

The Hazaras are a Persian-speaking people who mainly live in central Afghanistan, Hazara Town in Balochistan, Pakistan, and Karachi. They are overwhelmingly Twelver Shia Muslims and make up the third largest ethnic group in Afghanistan.

  • The origin of Hazara is much debated, the word Hazara means “thousand” in Persian but given the Hazara features, current theory supports their decent from Mongol soldiers left behind by Genghis Kahn in the 13th century.
  • Hazara population in Afghanistan is approximately 2.7 million, they were once the largest Afghan ethnic group constituting nearly 67% of the total population of the state before the 19th century. More than half were massacred in 1893 when their autonomy was lost as a result of political action. Today they constitute approximately 9% of the Afghan population.

Why attacks in Afghanistan are increasing

  • In the wake of Al-Qaeda’s 9/11 attacks, the United States invaded Afghanistan after the Taliban government refused to hand over Osama bin Laden.
  • The Taliban leadership quickly lost control of the country and relocated to southern Afghanistan and across the border to Pakistan.
  • From there, they have waged an insurgency against the Western-backed government in Kabul, international coalition troops, and Afghan national security forces.

NATO and Afghanistan

NATO commanded the United Nations-mandated International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan from August 2003 to December 2014. Its mission was to enable the Afghan authorities to provide effective security across the country and ensure that it would never again be a safe haven for terrorists. ISAF helped build the capacity of the Afghan national security forces. As these forces grew stronger, they gradually took responsibility for security across the country before the completion of ISAF’s mission. A new NATO-led mission (called Resolute Support) to train, advise and assist the Afghan security forces and institutions was launched in January 2015. NATO Allies and partners are also helping to sustain Afghan security forces and institutions financially, as part of a broader international commitment to Afghanistan. The NATO-Afghanistan Enduring Partnership provides a framework for wider political dialogue and practical cooperation.

  1. ISAF is NATO’s longest and most challenging mission to date. At its height, the force was more than 130,000 strong with troops from 51 NATO and partner nations.
  2. The transition to Afghan-led security was started in 2011, which was completed in December 2014, when the ISAF operation ended and the Afghans assumed full responsibility for security.

Resolute Support Mission

Resolute Support was launched on 1 January 2015 to provide further training, advice and assistance for the Afghan security forces and institutions. At the NATO Summit in Warsaw, Allied leaders decided to extend the presence of RSM beyond 2016.

  1. In May 2016, NATO foreign ministers agreed that RSM’s presence will be sustained beyond 2016. Allied leaders are expected to take a final decision in this regard by the time of the NATO Summit in Warsaw in July.
  2. NATO and its partners are already committed to providing financial support to sustain the Afghan forces until the end of 2017 and are currently working to ensure support until the end of 2020.

Green-on-Blue attacks

Attacks on Coalition forces by Afghan forces — the so-called green-on-blue attacks — have emerged as a major threat in the 14-year-old war in Afghanistan. These attacks from within have increased dramatically between 2011 and 2013; in 2012 they accounted for 15% of Coalition deaths.

  1. As US prepares to complete the withdrawal of its combat troops from Afghanistan by end of 2016, the US military and its Coalition partners are increasingly shifting security responsibilities to Afghan forces.
  2. Attacks by Afghan forces on Coalition forces are called Green – on – blue attacks.

How U.S.A. plays an important role to prevent the instability in Afghanistan?

Political Stability

  • The US could focus diplomatic efforts on helping to resolve Afghanistan’s most critical political challenges, particularly by holding parliamentary and district council elections. U.S. diplomats and White House officials were instrumental in negotiating the political agreement that led to the National Unity Government.

Economic Challenges

  • U.S. diplomats could negotiate more urgently with the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), and major financial contributors to better address acute economic and governance challenges. U.S. diplomats should concentrate on the issues such as a poor agricultural harvest, rising unemployment, and energy shortages.

Coordination with regional countries

  • Coordination with regional countries on the issues such as decreasing outside aid to insurgent groups, encouraging greater support for Kabul, and increasing reconciliation efforts.

India’s Role

  • India can assist Afghanistan in areas of Indian expertise: democracy, economics, and civilian security. India has been an important economic assistance partner for Afghanistan, and can help in other fields to prevent destabilisation.
  • India constructed the Afghan Parliament building, part of the inter-province Ring Road, electrical lines, and the Salma Dam, among others.
  • The Self-Employed Women’s Association of India—a women’s trade union—has educated more than three thousand Afghan women in micro-enterprise.
  • India has also trained Afghan civil servants in Indian academies. The Confederation of Indian Industry has trained more than one thousand Afghans in carpentry, plumbing, and welding.

Heart of Asia-Istanbul Process

The Heart of Asia – Istanbul Process was established to provide a platform to discuss regional issues, particularly encouraging security, political, and economic cooperation among Afghanistan and its neighbors. This region-led dialogue was launched in November 2011 to expand practical coordination between Afghanistan and its neighbors and regional partners in facing common threats, including counterterrorism, counternarcotics, poverty, and extremism. The United States and over 20 other nations and organizations serve as “supporting nations” to the process.

The countries participating in the Istanbul process have agreed on the following three elements for the follow-up to the Istanbul Process:

  1. A sustained incremental approach for implementation of the Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) identified in the Istanbul Process document;
  2. Political consultation involving Afghanistan and its near and extended neighbours.
  3. Seeking to contribute and bring greater coherence to the work of various regional processes and organisations, particularly as they relate to Afghanistan.

Over here we conclude our article on IAS Important Topics on International Current Affairs. Stay tuned with us for the rest of the topic that we will discuss day by day. 

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