Top 10 Must Read Topics for IAS Mains GS Paper 3: IAS Mains GS Paper 3 consists of themes of Technology, Economic development, Agriculture, Biodiversity, Environment, Security & Disaster Management. Being tricky by nature, this paper gives you an advantage over other aspirants if you score well.
The course structure of the exam is so that it requires rigorous preparations from the side of the aspirant. It requires you to have proper study material to cover various topics. The paper requires both analytical and factual knowledge of the candidate and thus becomes a tough nut to crack.
Over here we are sharing Top 10 Must Read Topics for IAS Mains GS Paper 3. Let us initiate with the next topic.
Top 10 Must Read Topics for IAS Mains GS Paper 3 | Land Reform Measures Post Independence
Today we will discuss THE NEXT Topic. Below mentioned is the explanation of the said topic.
Land reform programmes got the special attraction in the successive Five Year Plans to remove the defects of tenurial system prevailing at the eve of independence. Let us now consider briefly the main land reform measures undertaken by the Government of India.
The peculiarities of Indian agriculture, combined with the declared desire to bring about economic development as well as social justice led the govt., in the post-Independence period, to under-take a comprehensive programme of land reforms. These reforms, be it noted, had a popular base in as much as they were preceded by peasant, disturbances and violent clashes in several parts of the country.
The objectives of agrarian reforms are as follows:
i) To change the unequal and unproductive agrarian structure;
ii) To remove exploitative agrarian relations, often known as patron-client relationship
iii) To promote agriculture growth with social justice
Land Reform Measures Post Independence
These reforms comprised:
(a) abolition of intermediaries
(b) ceiling on land holdings
(c) Tenancy legislation
(d) cooperative farming
(e) abolition of forced labour and
(f) consolidation of holdings.
Abolition of Intermediaries
One of the first aims of the agrarian reforms was to eliminate the middlemen such as the Zamindars and Jagirdars so as to bring the cultivator into direct relationship with the govt. The work of Zamindari abolition was comparatively easy in the temporarily settled areas such as U.P. and M.P. where adequate records and administrative machinery existed.
Tenancy system, in simple words is called the system of cultivation in which the cultivator takes land from landlord or zamindar for the purpose of cultivation under pre-determined conditions.
Ceilings on Land Holding
The term ‘ceiling on land holdings’ refers to the legally stipulated maximum size beyond which no individual farmer or farm household can hold any land. Like all other land reforms measures, the objective of such ceiling is to promote economic growth with social justice. It has been duly recognized by India’s planners and policy makers that beyond a point any large scale farming in Indian situation becomes not only uneconomic, but also unjust. Small farms tend to increase economic efficiency of resource use and improve social equity through employment creation and more equitable income distribution.
Consolidation of Land Holding
The major cause for low agricultural productivity is the sub- division and fragmentation of land holdings. Sub-division of land means distribution of land of an ancestor among his successors. While fragmentation refers to a way in which the land owned by individual is scattered at different places.
The Agrarian Reforms Committee recommended against any system of cultivation by tenants and maintained that leasing of land should be prohibited except in the case of widows, minors and disabled persons.
This viewpoint received further strength subsequently in various Five Year Plans. According to the Second Five Year Plan, abolition of intermediary tenures and bringing the tenants into direct relations with the state would give the tiller of the soil his rightful place in the agrarian system and provide him with full incentives for increasing agricultural production.
Cooperative farming did not receive any attention before the planning period although the congress Agrarain Reforms Committee had recommended cooperative farming for holdings below the ‘basic’ holding.
Abolition of Forced Labour
Another significant development since 1947 was the virtual disappearance of forced labour. At the turn of the century, the vast majority of agricultural labourers were un-free men who were either in debt-bondage or some other form of servitude.