IAS Prelims 2017 Important topics: Adaptations Made for Survival In Tundra Biome

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IAS Prelims 2017 Important topics: Adaptations Made for Survival In Tundra Biome

IAS Prelims 2017 Important Topics on Current Affairs: The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) will conduct the civil services (CS) preliminary examination on June 18 this year. It is one of the most esteemed and toughest exams in the country. With a success rate of 0.1- 0.3 percent of the total percentage of candidates who apply, it is really difficult to nail the examination.

As you know, On 28th March 2017, we have shared IAS Prelims 2017 Important Topics on current affairs which will help you prepare for your upcoming examination. Here is the topic that we have discussed on 28th April, Click on the link below to explore.

IAS Prelims 2017 Important topics: Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus and Yaws Free by WHO

As promised, today we are going to continue with the twenty fourth topic i.e Adaptations Made for Survival In Tundra Biome. Let us provide you the brief explanation of the said topic.

 

IAS Prelims 2017 Important Topics on Current Affairs: Adaptations Made for Survival In Tundra Biome

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Indian Economy is a comprehensive text, with detailed coverage of all topics in the UPSC Preliminary and Main syllabus. Written by a subject expert who has several books
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The book is relatively concise when compared to books on the same topic by other authors. It captures the holistic view of not only struggle for independence but also the later Mughal period (post Aurangzeb), the decline of central authority, rise of regional satraps and the domination of tribes from Afghanistan. Those who are preparing for Civil Services should definitely go through this book twice or thrice, especially as in the new pattern.
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Let us provide you the explanation of the given topic.

Adaptations Made for Survival In Tundra Biome

Adaptations made for survival in Tundra BiomeThe tundra biome is an ecosystem situated near the North Pole in the Arctic Circle. There are three types of tundra: arctic tundra, alpine tundra and Antarctic tundra. It is noted for its frost-molded landscapes, extremely low temperatures, little precipitation, poor nutrients, and short growing seasons.

The winters are extremely cold with temperatures typically below -34° C. The summers last only about two months and the temperatures are still very cold ranging from 3° to 12° C.

Plants adaptations

Only a thin layer of soil, called the active layer, thaws and refreezes each year. This makes shallow root systems a necessity and prevents larger plants such as trees from growing in the Arctic. (The cold climate and short growing season also prevent tree growth. Trees need a certain amount of days above 50 degrees F, 10 degrees C, to complete their annual growth cycle.)

  • Most of the plants are small; grow close together and close to the ground. This protects them from the cold temperatures and the strong winds.
  • Some flowering plants have fuzzy coverings on the stems, leaves and buds to provide protection from the wind. Some have woolly seed covers.
  • Lichens grow in mats on the ground and on rocks across the Arctic. Lichens provide an important food source for caribou in the winter.
  • Many Arctic species can grow under a layer of snow, and virtually all polar plants are able to photosynthesize in extremely cold temperatures.
  • During the short polar summer, plants use the long hours of sunlight to quickly develop and produce flowers and seeds.
  • Flowers of some plants are cup-shaped and direct the sun’s rays toward the center of the flower. Darkcolored plants absorb more of the sun’s energy.
  • In addition, many species are perennials, growing and blooming during the summer, dying back in the winter, and returning the following spring from their root-stock. This allows the plants to direct less energy into seed production. Some species do not produce seeds at all, reproducing asexually through root growth.
  • Small leaves help the plants retain moisture.

Animal Adaptations

  • The animals in these regions are usually white or light colored, e.g., polar bear, penguin. This adaptation helps them in maintaining their body temperature, and in camouflaging.
  • These animals can store fat in their body as they eat a lot during the summer.
  • The stored fat can be consumed during the winter months because the animals hibernate for months, i.e., go into a state of inactivity, during severe winters.
  • In hibernation, their metabolic activity is reduced to a great extent. In this state, their heartbeat, breathing rate and temperature become very low.
  • Furred soles of the feet of polar bears protect them from cold and prevent them from slipping.
  • The small animals burrow down into the snow. The snow traps the air, and it becomes an excellent insulator.

Over here we conclude our article on IAS Prelims 2017 Important Topics on Current Affairs. Stay tuned with us for the rest of the topic that we will discuss day by day. 

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