EC-Elect and Comm Exam

The Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is an all-India examination that primarily tests the comprehensive understanding of various undergraduate subjects in engineering and science. GATE is conducted every year jointly by the Indian Institute of Science and seven Indian Institutes of Technology (Bombay, Delhi, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Madras, Roorkee, & Guwahati) on a rotational basis on behalf of the National Coordination Board – GATE, Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resources Development (MHRD), Government of India.

The Organizing Institute for GATE 2017 is Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. and the exam will be conducted between 4th-12th Feb,2017.

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GATE 2017: Introduction, Eligibility, Application Procedure, Exam Pattern, Syllabus, Preparation Strategy.

What is GATE?


Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is an All India Entrance Examination conducted jointly by IISc and seven IITs, every year in the month of January/February. The GATE score/Rank is used for admissions to Post graduate Programmes (ME, M.Tech, MS, direct PhD) in IISc, IITs and other prestigious Institutes / Universities in India, with financial assistance provided by MHRD. The GATE Score may also be used by PSUs for recruitment of candidates for prestigious jobs with attractive salary packages. Some of the PSUs which use GATE score for providing jobs include BARC, BHEL, IOCL, HPCL, NTPC, Power Grid, NHPC etc. GATE exam primarily tests the comprehensive understanding of the candidate in various undergraduate subjects in Engineering. The GATE score reflects the relative performance level in a particular branch. GATE score is valid for three years.

What is the Eligibility Criteria for GATE?

GATE 2017 Eligibility Criteria

Candidates with any of the following qualifications are eligible to appear in GATE 2017.

1. Bachelor’s degree in Engineering/Technology (4 years after 10+2 or 3 years after Diploma in Engineering/ Technology) and those who are in the final year of such programs.

2. Bachelor’s degree in Architecture (Five years course) and those who are in the final year such programs.

3. Bachelor’s degree of Four-year program in Science (B.S.) and those who are in the final year of such program.

4. Master’s degree in any branch of Science/Mathematics/Statistics/Computer Applications or equivalent and those who are in the final year of such programs.

5. Four-year integrated Master’s degree (Post-B.Sc.) in Engineering/Technology and those in the second or higher year of such program.

6. Five-year integrated Master’s degree or Dual Degree in Engineering/Technology and those in the fourth or higher year of such program.

7. Five-year integrated M.Sc. or Five year integrated B.Sc. /M.Sc. degree and those in the final year of such programs.

8. Candidates with qualifications obtained through examinations conducted by professional societies recognized by UPSC/AICTE as equivalent to B.E./B.Tech. Those who have completed section A of AMIE or equivalent of such professional courses are also eligible.

9. GATE candidates from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka and UAE should have completed Bachelor’s degree in Engineering or Master’s degree in Science in a relevant subject or are in the final year of the program.

If a candidate fails to satisfy the eligibility criteria, he/ she cannot appear for the written examination for GATE 2017.

If a candidate fails the satisfy the eligibility criteria, he/ she cannot appear for the written examination for GATE 2017.

How to Apply for GATE?

GATE 2017 Application Procedure

GATE 2017 Examination for all the trades/ fields will be conducted online or Computer Based Test. The Online Registration Form or GATE Application Form will be submitted through GATE Online Application Processing System (GOAPS).

GATE 2017 Application Fees

The Application Fees for GATE 2017 Examination will also be submitted online and can be done through Net Banking, Debit/ Credit card or e-Challan.

GATE 2017 Application Fees

For Women Candidates Rs. 750/-
For SC/ ST/ PwD Category Candidates Rs. 750/-
For All Other Candidates Rs. 1500/-


What is the Exam Pattern for GATE?

GATE 2017 Exam Pattern

All the papers of GATE will be conducted by an ONLINE Computer Based Test (CBT). The GATE Examination consists of a single paper of 3-hour duration that contains 65 questions carrying a maximum of 100 marks. The GATE paper consists of questions of the following types:

1. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) carrying 1 or 2 marks each; Each of  the multiple choice objective questions in all papers and sections contain four answer choices, out of which you have to select correct answer.

2. Numerical Answer Questions (NAQ) carrying 1 or 2 marks each; The answer is a real number, which you have to enter on the computer screen. No choices are shown for this type of questions.

For numerical answer type questions, the candidates have to enter a number as the answer using a virtual key board.

There will be negative marking for the multiple choice type questions.

-->For, 1-mark multiple-choice questions, 1/3 mark will be deducted for a wrong answer.

-->For 2-mark multiple-choice questions, 2/3 mark will be deducted for a wrong answer.

There is NO negative marking for numerical answer type questions.

In all the papers, there will be a total of 65 questions carrying 100 marks.Out of these 65 questions, 10 questions carrying a total of 15 marks will be on General Aptitude (GA). Rest of the 55 questions will be from Technical and Engineering Mathematics section.

What is the Syllabus for GATE Electronics and Communication Engineering?

GATE 2017 Electronics and Communication Engineering Syllabus

General Aptitude(GA): Common Syllabus for all papers

The GATE EC Syllabus consists of GA section which will follow the same pattern of questions and marking scheme for all the papers of GATE 2017. This section is considered to be easy and will test your English skills and general numeric ability.

Verbal Ability: English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups, instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction.

Numerical Ability: Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and data interpretation.

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

This section of GATE EC Syllabus consists of testing your practical and theoretical skills that are typically used in the engineering industry.

  • Linear Algebra: Vector space, basis, linear dependence and independence, matrix algebra, eigen values and eigen vectors, rank, solution of linear equations – existence and uniqueness.
  • Calculus: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, line, surface and volume integrals, Taylor series.
  • Differential Equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, methods of solution using variation of parameters, complementary function and particular integral, partial differential equations, variable separable method, initial and boundary value problems.
  • Vector Analysis: Vectors in plane and space, vector operations, gradient, divergence and curl, Gauss’s, Green’s and Stoke’s theorems.
  • Complex Analysis: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula; Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, residue theorem.
  • Numerical Methods: Solution of nonlinear equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations, convergence criteria.
  • Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; combinatorial probability, probability distribution functions – binomial, Poisson, exponential and normal; Joint and conditional probability; Correlation and regression analysis.

Section 2: Networks, Signals and Systems

  • Network solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis; Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s, maximum power transfer; Wye‐Delta transformation; Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors; Time domain analysis of simple linear circuits; Solution of network equations using Laplace transform; Frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits; Linear 2‐port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions; State equations for networks.
  • Continuous-time signals: Fourier series and Fourier transform representations, sampling theorem and applications; Discrete-time signals: discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT), DFT, FFT, Z-transform, interpolation of discrete-time signals; LTI systems: definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay, digital filter design techniques.

Section 3: Electronic Devices

  • Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic silicon; Carrier transport: diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity; Generation and recombination of carriers; Poisson and continuity equations; P-N junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, photo diode and solar cell; Integrated circuit fabrication process: oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography and twin-tub CMOS process.

Section 4: Analog Circuits

  • Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs and MOSFETs; Simple diode circuits: clipping, clamping and rectifiers; Single-stage BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: biasing, bias stability, mid-frequency small signal analysis and frequency response; BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: multi-stage, differential, feedback, power and operational; Simple op-amp circuits; Active filters; Sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation, single-transistor and opamp configurations; Function generators, wave-shaping circuits and 555 timers; Voltage reference circuits; Power supplies: ripple removal and regulation.

Section 5: Digital Circuits

  • Number systems; Combinatorial circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders and PLAs; Sequential circuits: latches and flip‐flops, counters, shift‐registers and finite state machines; Data converters: sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs; Semiconductor memories: ROM, SRAM, DRAM; 8-bit microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.

Section 6: Control Systems

  • Basic control system components; Feedback principle; Transfer function; Block diagram representation; Signal flow graph; Transient and steady-state analysis of LTI systems; Frequency response; Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria; Bode and root-locus plots; Lag, lead and lag-lead compensation; State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems.

Section 7: Communications

  • Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems; Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers, circuits for analog communications; Information theory: entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem; Digital communications: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying (ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding, matched filter receiver, calculation of bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation; Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes; Timing and frequency synchronization, inter-symbol interference and its mitigation; Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA.

Section 8: Electromagnetics

  • Electrostatics; Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector; Plane waves and properties: reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth; Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart; Waveguides: modes, boundary conditions, cut-off frequencies, dispersion relations; Antennas: antenna types, radiation pattern, gain and directivity, return loss, antenna arrays; Basics of radar; Light propagation in optical fibers.

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When to start your preparation for GATE?

Many would say that 3 to 4 months of serious preparation is enough for getting an under 500 AIR but keeping in mind the intense competition that is increasing year after year, it is suggested that you start your GATE preparation at the earliest.

How to prepare for GATE?

In order to crack GATE, you must first go through the entire syllabus word by word. Read and remember every topic of every subject that is mentioned in the GATE syllabus. You must know, very clearly, what to study and what not to study. 

Once you are thorough with the GATE syllabus, you are ready to begin your preparation for GATE.

It is very important for you to have a study plan if you want to get a good score in GATE examination. Most of the previous GATE toppers have followed the steps mentioned below in one way or the other. You need to do the same if you want to achieve what they have achieved.

1. Get previous years solved question papers for GATE

You must make sure that you have access to solutions of previously asked questions in GATE. There are a lot of options available in the market. Get your hands on any one of them. This you must carry with you all the time. You need to refer to it again and again. 

2. Analyse the paper trend

Every exam has its own trends and patterns. Refer to the syllabus and previous years papers and analyse the paper pattern of the GATE exam. All subjects don't carry equal marks in GATE. There are few subjects from which more number of questions are asked. Similarly there are few topics in every subject from which questions are being asked on a regular basis every year. After performing the above mentioned analysis, you will have a very good idea of the latest GATE paper trend.

3. Make a priority list of subjects and topics

Based on the marks and preference given to various subjects, decide what subjects you need to give priority to. Do a similar exercise for topics inside a particular subject. Given the vastness of the syllabus, it is very important for you to perform this exercise and create a priority list of subjects and topics. 

4. Allocate realistic time to topics and subjects

You must allocate realistic time to every topic of every subject based on their priority. Try to distribute your time so that you cover the top three topics of every subject first and then move down to subjects and topics of lesser priority.

5. Read, practice and revise

Read a topic and then solve the previous years questions asked from that topic. Do it for every topic of every subject. Stick to a time table, read the chapters, solve the previous years questions and take tests periodically to enhance your performance. Make sure that you revise the difficult topics and subjects periodically to optimize your efforts.

6. Finish your preparation well in advance.

You must make sure that you follow a time table that allows you to complete your preparation about a month before your actual GATE examination. You must use this last month to get ahead of the competition by solving as many questions as possible, taking as many mock tests as you can and working as hard as possible on your speed and accuracy. This is the step majority of the aspirants fail to take. Ensure that you follow this last step and rest assured that you will succeed in the GATE examination.

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