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40 UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITES IN INDIA 2022

Context

There are 40 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India. Dholavira and Ramappa Temple are the most recent entries to the 'Cultural' category. Ramappa Temple in Telangana and Dholavira in Gujarat will be included in the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list in 2021.

Key Points

  • The 44th session of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee was held in Fuzhou, China. 
  • It designated the Kakatiya Rudreshwara (Ramappa) Temple in Telangana's Warangal and Dholavira, a Harappan-era city in Gujarat, as UNESCO World Heritage Sites its most recent session. 
  • With the addition of the two sites, India now has 40 World Heritage Sites. 
  • The total number of World Heritage Sites will rise from 38 to 40 in 2021.
  • UNESCO has designated the two World Heritage Sites in India as providing significant insight into the knowledge and ways of life of past societies, customs, and communities.

What is UNESCO World Heritage Site?

  • The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization has designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site (UNESCO) location. 
  • The Convention on the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, which UNESCO adopted in 1972, is an example.

Criteria for UNESCO World Heritage Sites:

  1. Human creative genius
  2. Interchange of values
  3. Testimony to cultural tradition
  4. Significance in human history
  5. Traditional human settlement
  6. Heritage associated with events of universal significance
  7. Natural phenomena or beauty
  8. Major stages of Earth's history
  9. Significant ecological and biological processes
  10. The significant natural habitat for biodiversity

Features of 40 Indian Sites

  1. Ajanta Caves - Buddhist rock-cut cave monuments are well-known. Like those seen at Sigiriya, Paintings and frescoes adorn the walls.
  2. Ellora Caves is the collection of temples and monasteries dedicated to the Jain and Hindu religions. These caves were carved out of hills, and the architecture was rock-cut.
  3. Agra Fort is one of the Mughal Empire's most well-known colossal buildings.
  4. The Taj Mahal is one of the Seven Wonders of the World. King Shahjahan had built this structure in the memory of his third wife Begum Mumtaz Mahal.
  5. Sun Temple: This temple is known for its typical Kalinga architectural style.
  6. Mahabalipuram Monuments - The Mahabalipuram Largest Open Air Rock Relief, Mandapas, Chariot Temples, and Pallava Dynasty Architecture are featured in this monument.
  7. Kaziranga National Park - The world's second-largest population of Great One-Horned Rhinoceroses can be found here. It is home to the world's highest concentration of tigers and wild water buffalo, elephants, and swamp deer. It is designated as an Important Bird Area.
  8. Keoladeo National Park - Man-Made Wetland Bird Sanctuary, Ornithologists' Mecca, and Siberian Cranes are prominent attractions.
  9. Manas Wildlife Sanctuary - Project Tiger Reserve, Biosphere Reserve, and Elephant Reserve are well-known features of this sanctuary.
  10. Goa's Churches and Convents is known for the Orient's Rome, Asia's First Manueline, Mannerist, and Baroque Art Forms, and Asia's First Latin Rite Mass.
  11. Monuments of Khajuraho's - This landmark is well-known for its Jain and Hindu temples collection. It is 175 kilometres southeast of Jhansi. Their Nagara-style symbolism and sensual figures and sculptures are prominent.
  12. Monuments of Hampi's - Vijayanagar is a prosperous kingdom. The exquisite Dravidian style of art and architecture can be seen in the ruins of Hampi. The Virupaksha Temple is the most important heritage monument on the site.
  13. Fatehpur Sikri (Fatehpur) - Its structure is made up of four major monuments. The Jama Masjid, Buland Darwaza, Panch Mahal or Jada Baai ka Mahal, Diwane-Khas, and Diwan-eaam are some of the most important structures in the city.
  14. Elephanta Caves – The Cave is dedicated to Buddhism and Hinduism are popular. It is located on an Arabian Sea island. There are also Shiva Temples and Basal Rock Caves.
  15. Great Living Chola Temples - Chola architecture, sculpture, painting, and bronze casting are all popular at this temple.
  16. Pattadakal Monuments is known for its Chalukya architecture, which originated in Aihole and was later merged with Nagara and Dravidian forms.
  17. Sundarbans National Park - Biosphere Reserve, Largest Estuarine Mangrove Forest, Bengal Tiger, and Salt-Water Crocodile are all names given to this National Park.
  18. National Parks of Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers - Snow Leopard, Asiatic Black Bear, Brown Bear, Blue Sheep, and Himalayan Monal are among the species are found here, according to the World Network of Biosphere.
  19. Buddha's Monuments - Monolithic Pillars, Palaces, Monasteries, Temples, Mauryan Architecture, and Ye Dharma Hetu Inscriptions are popular.
  20. The Tomb of Humayun is well-known for its Mughal architecture and forerunners to the Taj Mahal. A Tomb, a Pavilion, any Water Channels, and a Bath 21 are all included. 
  21. Qutub Minar & its Monuments include Alai Darwaza, Alai Minar, Qubbat-ul-Islam Mosque, Tomb of Iltumish, and Iron Pillar.
  22. Mountain Railways of Darjeeling, Kalka Shimla & Nilgiri - The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, the Nilgiri Mountain Railway, and the Kalka-Shimla Railway are among India's mountain railways.
  23. Mahabodhi Temple is a Buddhist temple in India. It is a significant sacred site since Mahatma Buddha received enlightenment. For Buddhists, Bodh Gaya is regarded as the holiest pilgrimage site.
  24. Bhimbetka - It's known for Rock Paintings in Natural Rock Shelters, Stone Age Inscriptions, and the Bhima Sitting Place (Mahabharata).
  25. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus is known for the Central Railways Headquarters, the Mumbai Terror Attacks of 2008, and Gothic Style Architecture.
  26. ChampanerPavagadh Archaeological Park - This is the only pre-Mughal Islamic city that has remained intact. The park also houses the Stone Age's historic Chalcolithic Indian Sites.
  27. The Red Fort - Shahjahanabad, Persian, Timuri, Indian architectural styles, Red Sandstone Architecture, and Moti Masjid are also popular.
  28. Jantar Mantar made during Maharaja Jai Singh II, the largest observatory is known for architectural astronomical instruments.
  29. The Western Ghats - Known for being one of the "World's Ten Hottest Biodiversity Hotspots." There are numerous National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, and Reserve Forests in this area.
  30. Hill Forts - This location is well-known for its Rajput Military Defense Architecture. Chittorgarh, Kumbhalgarh, Ranthambore Fort, Gagron Fort, Amber Fort, and Jaisalmer Fort are among the six magnificent forts.
  31. Rani Ki Vav is a clear example of magnificent Ancient Indian architecture built during the Solanki dynasty's reign.
  32. The Great Himalayan National Park supports over 375 species and floral species, including extremely rare plants and animals such as blue sheep, snow leopards, Himalayan brown bears, Himalayan Tahrs, and musk deer spruces, horse chestnuts, and vast alpine meadows. The Himalayan Biodiversity Hotspots include it.
  33. Nalanda - From the 3rd century BCE through the 13th century CE, it served as a study centre and a Buddhist monastery. 
  34. Khangchendzonga National Park - Snow leopards are occasionally seen in the national park, known for their animals and flora.
  35. Le Corbusier's Architectural Work (Capitol Complex) - As part of an extraordinary contribution to the Modern Movement, it has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  36. The Historic City - For ages, populations are practising Hinduism, Islam, and Jainism have coexisted in this walled city on the banks of the Sabarmati.
  37. Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles is a group of 94 historically significant buildings in Mumbai's Fort District.
  38. The Pink City- Many exquisite forts, palaces, temples, and museums can be found in Jaipur, also brimming with local handicrafts and trinkets.
  39. Kakatiya Rudreshwara (Ramappa) Temple – It is located in the Telangana village of Palampet. It is thought that the temple is between 800 and 900 years old. Floating bricks, lightweight porous bricks, are especially popular at the temple.
  40. Dholavira is a Gujarati architectural site located in the Kutch district. It is one of the most well-known sites of the Indus Valley Civilization.

List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India:

 

Sl. No.

Name of Sites

Year

Location

1

Ajanta Caves

1983

Maharashtra

2

Ellora Caves

1983

Maharashtra

3

Agra Fort

1983

Agra

4

Taj Mahal

1983

Agra

5

Sun Temple

1984

Orissa

6

Mahabalipuram Monuments

1984

Tamil Nadu

7

Kaziranga National Park

1985

Assam

8

Keoladeo National Park

1985

Rajasthan

9

Manas Wildlife Sanctuary

1985

Assam

10

Churches and Convents of Goa

1986

Goa

11

Monuments of Khajurahoo

1986

Madhya Pradesh

12

Monuments of Hampi

1986

Karnataka

13

Fatehpur Sikri

1986

Agra

14

Elephanta Caves

1987

Maharashtra

15

Great Living Chola Temple

1987

Tamil Nadu

16

Pattadakal Monuments

1987

Karnataka

17

Sundarbans National Park

1987

West Bengal

18

Nanda Devi & Valley of Flowers National Park

1988

Uttarakhand

19

Monuments of Buddha

1989

Sanchi, MP

20

Humayun’s Tomb

1993

Delhi

21

Qutub Minar and its Monuments

1993

Delhi

22

Mountain Railways of Darjeeling, Kalka Shimla & Nilgiri

1999

Darjeeling

23

Mahabodhi Temple

2002

Bihar

24

Bhimbetka Rock Shelters

2003

Madhya Pradesh

25

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus

2004

Maharashtra

26

ChampanerPavagadh Archeological Park

2004

Gujarat

27

Red Fort

2007

Delhi

28

Jantar Mantar

2010

Delhi

29

Western Ghats

2012

Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Maharastra

30

Hill Forts

2013

Rajasthan

31

Rani Ki Vav (The Queen's Stepwell)

2014

Gujarat

32

Great Himalayan National Park

2014

Himachal Pradesh

33

Nalanda

2016

Bihar

34

Khangchendzonga National Park

2016

Sikkim

35

Architectural Work of Le Corbusier (Capitol Complex)

2016

Chandigarh

36

The Historic City

2017

Ahmedabad

37

Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles

2018

Mumbai

38

The Pink City

2019

Jaipur

39

Kakatiya Rudreshwara (Ramappa) Temple

2021

Telangana

40

Dholavira

2021

Gujarat

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