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Artificial Intelligence : Initiatives and Progress

Artificial Intelligence: Initiatives and Progress

What is Artificial Intelligence: Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals. In computer science AI research is defined as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a wake-up call to policymakers in India, with every one of Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s flagship programs likely to be directly affected within the next few years. With China making rapid progress in AI-based research, it is imperative that India view AI as a critical element of national security strategy.

Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1956, and in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding (known as an "AI winter"), followed by new approaches, success and renewed funding. For most of its history, AI research has been divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. These sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals (e.g. "robotics" or "machine learning"), the use of particular tools ("logic" or artificial neural networks), or deep philosophical differences. Subfields have also been based on social factors (particular institutions or the work of particular researchers).

The Challenges Facing India’s AI Development

AI-based applications to date have been driven largely by the private sector and have been focused primarily in consumer goods. The emergent scale and implications of the technology make it imperative for policymakers in government to take notice.

Early lessons of AI success in the United States, China, South Korea, and elsewhere offer public and private funding models for AI research that India should consider.

The sequential system of education and work is outdated in today’s economic environment as the nature of jobs shifts rapidly and skills become valuable and obsolete in a matter of years.

For India to maximally benefit from the AI revolution, it must adopt a deliberate policy to drive AI innovation, adaptation, and proliferation in sectors beyond consumer goods and information technology services.

Policymakers should make AI a critical component of the prime minister’s flagship Make in India, Skill India, and Digital India programs by offering incentives for manufacturers, creating regional innovation clusters for manufacturing automation and robotics in partnership with universities and start-ups, incorporating market-based mechanisms for identifying the kind of skills that employers will value in the future, and promoting cloud infrastructure capacity building inside India.

The National Education Policy must make radical recommendations on alternative models of education that would be better suited to an AI-powered economy of the future.

The government should identify public sector applications like detecting tax fraud, preventing subsidy leakage, and targeting beneficiaries, where current advances in AI could make a significant impact.

India must view machine intelligence as a critical element of its national security strategy and evaluate models of defense research in collaboration with the private sector and universities.

Artificial Intelligence has raised a number of issues ranging from ethical to economic to philosophical to technical, even as it is yet to take a real form.

Positive views

- many philosopher scientists see it as a means to achieving the idea of Singularity , alternatively called as extropianism.

- some economists believe that with old employment going away at the hands of AI, new would be created

- Scientists even look forward to evolving humans from biological state to cyber-mechanical state using AI

- Anarcho-Communists believe it to be a step closer to the utopia where the state would be irrelevant and AI would assist in forming the society based on Act Utilitarianism principles;

Negative views

- a dystopian future where even a single super-intelligent AI machine might overpower everything and everyone.

- Liberals raise ethical concerns like those of human rights for AI machines once they become aware like humans.

- A co-existential crisis might ensue with a conflict between two intelligent races - humans and machines.

- ethical concern regarding ownership is yet another dilemma as owning an intelligent and aware race - even if machines - would be akin to going back to the days of slavery.

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