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EVIDENCE OF DAIRY PRODUCTION IN THE INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION

EVIDENCE OF DAIRY PRODUCTION IN THE INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION

Context

Recent studies and findings of Indus Valley Civilisation.

Details about the findings

  • Traces were seen in cooking vessels indicating that milk may have been boiled and consumed.
  • Residues in a bowl showing that either heated milk or curd could have been served.
  • There are also remains of a perforated vessel, and similar vessels were used in Europe to make cheese.
  • Cows and water buffalo were found to consume millets, while sheep and goats ate nearby grass and leaves.
  • Most of the cattle and water-buffalo died at an older age, suggesting they could have been raised for milk, whereas the majority of goat/sheep died when they were young, indicating they could have been used for meat.
  • The large herd indicates that milk was produced in surplus so that it could be exchanged and there could have been some kind of trade between settlements, which could have given rise to an industrial level of dairy exploitation.

About Indus Valley Civilisation

The Indus civilisation is also known as the Harappan Civilisation. The Harappan civilisation was the first urban civilisation in South Asia, contemporaneous with the civilisations of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Of the three aforementioned civilisations, the Harappan civilisation occupied most area (about 8,00,000 sq km).

The Harappan civilisation can be classified into three phases  :

  • The Early/Pre-Harappan phase (c. 3200−2600 BCE )
  • Mature Harappan phase (c. 2600−1900 BCE )
  • Late Harappan phase (c. 1900−1300 BCE )

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