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The withdrawal of the south-west monsoon and the onset of north-east monsoon are both gradual phenomena. They take place almost at the same time and tend to merge which explains the popularity of the phrase “Retreating Monsoon”.

Retreat of Monsoon:

  • Process of withdrawal begins by mid-September and the north western part of the country is the first place from where the retreat begins which is due to the weakening of the low-pressure area over the north-western parts of India, then leads to blowing of winds from a North Easterly to South Westerly direction, as the ITCZ shifts south as there is movement of the sun over the southern hemisphere.
  • Retreats start from the western Rajasthan by the first week of September. It withdraws from Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western Ganga plain and the Central Highlands by the end of the month.
  • By the beginning of October, the low pressure covers northern parts of the Bay of Bengal and by early November, it moves over Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
  • By the middle of December, the centre of low pressure is completely removed from the Peninsula.

Temperature :

  • Day temperature is high and nights are cool and pleasant. The average minimum temperature fall below 20oC.
  • The decrease in temperature after mid-October helps winter to set in by November or Early December.

Phenomena of October Heat

  • During the month of October, the humidity in the air rises pretty rapidly due to the withdrawal of monsoons which makes the weather conditions pretty oppressive leading to heat strokes which is known as October Heat.

Tropical Cyclones:

  • Water over Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea heats up creating a low pressure which then accelerates extracting moisture from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea, leading to the formation of cyclones. The bulk of rainfall in Coromandel Coast is due to these low pressures and cyclones.

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