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IAS Weekly Challenge

Q.1. Which of the following is/are the salient characteristics of Harappan civilization?
1. Town planning
2. Use of standard weights and measures
3. Indus script on seals
4. Practice of burying the dead
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
A. 1, 2 and 3 only
B. 1, 2 and 4 only
C. 3 and 4 only
D. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Q.2. There has been considerable decline in corals Great Barrier Reef. Which of the factors have contributed to its decline?
1.Over fishing and coastal erosion.
2.Increase in green house gas emission.
3.Coastal pollution
4.Ocean warming Select the correct answer using the codes given below .
Which of the statements given above are correct?
A. 1 and 2
B. 2 and 4
C. 1,2, 4
D. 1,2, 3 and 4

Q.3. Which of the following statements regarding Himalayan ranges is/are correct?
1. These ranges intercept the summer monsoon causing rain in whole of Indian Subcontinent.
2. In the absence of the Himalayas, the whole of India would be a cold desert in winter.
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
A. 1 only
B. 2 only
C. Both 1 and 2
D. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.4. Why is India western coast comparatively less susceptible to cyclones?
1. Arabian Sea is colder in comparison to Bay of Bengal, hence here less storms are formed.
2. The storm formed in Bay of Bengal become less severe once the collide with land.
3. The storms formed above Bay of Bengal are either formed in South-Eastern part of Bay of Bengal or they are parts of storms formed in North-Western Pacific.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
A. 1 and 2 only
B. 2 and 3 only
C. 1 and 3 only
D. 1, 2 and 3

Q.5. Consider the following statements regarding National Human Rights Commission (NHRC):
1. It was formed under the aegis of UN Human Rights Council.
2. It has its own nucleus of investigating staff for investigating into complaints.
3. It can only look into matter of Human rights violation within 1 year of its occurrence.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
A. 1 only
B. 1 and 2 only
C. 2 and 3 only
D. 1, 2 and 3

Answers with Explaination 

1. (D)
Statement 1 is correct : The most remarkable feature of the Harappan civilization was its urbanisation. Each city was divided into a citadel area where the essential institutions of civil and religious life were located and the lower residential area where the urban population lived.In Mohenjodaro and Harappa, the citadel was surrounded by a brick wall. At Kalibangan, both the citadel and the lower city were surrounded by a wall. The use of baked and unbaked bricks of standard size shows that the brick making was a large scale industry for the Harappans.
Statement 2 is correct : The harappan system of weights and measures was excellent. For weighing goods – small as well as large – perfectly made cubes of agate were employed. The weights followed a binary system in the lower denominations: 1, 2, 4, 8 to 64 and then going to 160 and then in decimal multiples of 16, 320, 640, 1,600, 3,200 etc.
Statement 3 is correct : Indus script has been found on the seals eg. at Mahenjodaro and Harappa. However, this script has not been deciphered yet. Also, overlapping of letters on some of the potsherds from Kalibangan show that the writing was boustrophedon or from right to lift and from left to right in alternate lines.
Statement 4 is correct: There are over fifty-five burial sites in the Indus valley were found Harappa. The burials are interpreted primarily as reflections of social structure and hierarchy, conceptions of the natural, super-natural, life and death. The principal sites are Harappa Kalibangan, Rakhigarhi, Lothal, Rojdi, and Ropar. In general, the burials in the Harappan period were all in brick or stone lined rectangular or oval pits. The body was usually interred clothed shrouded or in a wooden coffin in the north south direction in a straight direction. It was important that the body did not come into contact with the ground.A few unique burials were found in the grave sites of Lothal, Ropar, and Rojdi. In Ropar a man was found buried with a dog. In Rodji two infants were found buried beneath the floor of a house.
Below are reasons for the depletion of corals of Great Barrier Reef:
Extensive erosion and fishing are harmful to corals.
Corals die due increase in green house gases, pollution and sea temperature.
3. (B)
Though the Himalayas effectively intercept the south east monsoons causing rain in Indi subcontinent, some rain is also caused alongside Western Ghats.
4. (D)
The western coast experience less storms due to:-
a. Arabian sea has low temperature as compared to Bay of Bengal.
b. tropical cyclones more active in Bay of Bengal.
c. cyclones of Bay of Bengal are either from tropical cyclones of Pacific Ocean or formed in south-eastern Bay of Bengal.

5. (D)
Statement 1 is Incorrect. NHRC is a statutory body and not a constitutional body. It was established in 1993 under a legislation enacted by the parliament, namely, the Prevention of Human Rights Act, 1993.

Statement 2 is Correct. NHRC has its own nucleus of investigation staff for investigation into complaints of human rights violations.

Statement 3 is Correct. The commission is not empowered to inquire into any matter after the expiry of one year from the date on which the act constituting violation of human rights is alleged to have been committed.

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