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THIS DAY IN HISTORY

22 - October – 1764

The Battle of Buxar was fought between armies of Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal; the Nawab of Awadh; and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II and British East India Company led by Hector Munro.

The historic battle fought between the British and the Indian forces resulted in victory for the British. The three combined army forces of Mir Qasim (Bengal), Shuja-ud-Daulah (Awadh), and Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II met with a crushing defeat under the hands of Major Munro.

After the war, Mir Kasim fled to the North-West and died. Shah Alam II left Shuja-ud-Daulah and sought shelter in the British camp. Shuja-ud-Daulah tried to defeat the British till 1765 but was not successful. He later fled to Rohilkhand. According to historical reports and studies, the main cause of defeat of the Mughals was the lack of co-ordination among the various Mughal Forces.

Implications of the Battle

  • It led to the signing of the Allahabad Treaty in 1765 by Lord Robert Clive with Mughal
  • Emperor Shah Alam II.
  • With the defeat of Mir Kasim, the rule of Nawabs came to an end.
  • Diwani rights or fiscal rights were secured which meant that the British would administer
  • and manage revenues of large areas which included the present-day West Bengal,
  • Jharkhand, Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh, as well as of Bangladesh. The British became the
  • masters of the people of these places.
  • In return of this right, the British would give Rs 26 lakh to the Mughal emperor Shah
  • Alam II.
  • After the Buxar victory, the English armies moved towards Awadh and established their
  • control over Banaras and Allahabad.
  • Shuja-ud-Daulah would pay Rs 50 lakh immediately to the company as expenses of war.
  • He also needed to pay later Rs 25 lakh in instalments.
  • The treaty legalised the East India Company's control over the whole of Bengal. Thus, the
  • British established their control in the eastern part of the country.
  • Ghazipur and its adjacent area were handed over to the East India company.
  • The Allahabad fort became the home of the emperor and he would be protected by few
  • men of the company's army.
  • A vakil of the English would remain in the court of Shah Alam II. But he was not allowed
  • to interfere in the administration of the country.

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