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THIS DAY IN HISTORY

30 - October - 1883    Swami Dayanand Saraswati, founder of Arya Samaj, died in Ajmer.

About Swami Dayanand Saraswati

  • Born at Morvi in Kathiawar (Gujarat) in Samavedi Brahmin Caste.
  • At 21, he ran away from home to escape getting married. From 1845-1 860 he wandered to different places in search of knowledge.
  • In 1860, under Swami Virajananda Saraswati at Mathura, he began to study Panini and Patanjali and started preaching in 1864.
  • On November 17, 1869, he engaged in a mighty Shastrartha (theological 1 debate) with leaders of Hindu Orthodoxy at Kashi.
  • On April 10, 18'75, the Arya Samaj was established in Bombay, and in 1877 its constitution was finalized at Lahore.

Ideas of Swami Dayanand Saraswati

  • Swami Dayanand Saraswati was one of those influential thinkers who drew upon traditions for the formulation of his social ideas.
  • His main contention was that it was necessary for Indians to go back to the ideas of the Vedas.
  • His basic effort was therefore directed to attaining the three objectives of Vedic revivalism, rationalism and social reform of considerable contemporary import.
  • He was heavily critical of the West and Islam. He was equally severe on those who advocated the path of modernisation through western ideas and attitudes.

 

30th October 1909: Indian nuclear physicist Homi Bhabha was born

Homi Jehangir Bhabha (1909-1966)

  • He was born on 30th October 1909 in Mumbai.
  • In 1937, together with W. Heitler who was a German physicist, solved the riddle about cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are fast-moving, extremely small particles coming from outer space. When these particles enter the earth’s atmosphere, they collide with the atoms of air and create a shower of electrons.
  • Bhabha’s discovery of the presence of nuclear particles (which he called mesons) in these showers was used to validate Einstein’s theory of relativity making him world-famous.
  • In 1941, for his contributions to the field of cosmic rays, elementary particles and quantum mechanics he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society, London.
  • He was instrumental in the establishment of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) in Mumbai in 1945.
  • In 1948, He was appointed the Chairman of the International Atomic Energy Commission and under his guidance, nuclear reactors like the Apsara, Cirus and Zerlina were built.
  • He served as the President of the first United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, which was held in Geneva in 1955.  He was the President of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics from 1960 to 1963.
  • He is the recipient of the Adam’s Award, Padma Bhushan, an Honorary Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States.

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