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Indus Valley Civilization (2900 – 1700 BC)-Art and Architecture

It is also known as’ Bronze Age’ / ‘Saraswathi sindhu’ / ‘Harappan civilization’.

Seals of Indus Valley Civilization

  • Usually in Square, Rectangular, Circular & Triangular shapes with an average size of ‘2 x 2.’
  • Engraved in the pictographic script (Writing – Right to left) along with animal impressions which are yet to be deciphered
  • Made up of soft river stone, Copper, steatite, gold & ivory – mainly for trade & commerce
  • Averages of 5 signs are present on Seals.
  • Decorated with animals’ pics like Unicorn, Bull, Rhinoceros, Elephant, Tiger, Bison, Goat & Buffalo etc.
  • No seal found with the image of cow till now.
  • Indus seals found in Mesopotamia i.e. Sign of possible trade.

Terracotta Sculptures of Indus Valley Civilization

  • It is a fire-baked clay & is handmade using a pinching method
  • Ex: - Mother Goddess, Toy carts with wheels etc.

Bronze Sculptures

The technique used for casting is known as “Lost Wax Technique.”

Bronze dancing girl

  • It is a naked girl wearing only ornaments which include bangles, armlets, necklace & amulets.
  • The left hand is on the hip & made using “Lost Wax Technique.”

Extensive Town Planning

  • Citadel / Acropolis at cities for a member of the ruling class (west side) & brick houses below citadel in town for commoners
  • Fortifications with gateways enclosing the walled cities show that there may have been a fear of being attacked
  • Concept of two-storied houses was also present
  • Large scale use of baked bricks as a building material.
  • Granaries in Citadels with strategic air-ducts gives an idea of an organized collection & distribution system
  • A remarkable grid system of roads & Roads cutting at the right angle to each other.
  • Remarkable underground drainage system connecting all houses & streets covered by bricks/stone slabs.
  • Great Bath – public bathing place shows the importance of ritualistic bathing and cleanliness in this culture.

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