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Understanding Iran Nuclear deal

Understanding Iran Nuclear deal

US President Donald Trump announced on May 8 that he will pull the United States out of the Iran nuclear deal, a 2015 agreement that capped over a decade of hostility between Tehran and the West over its atomic program.

What is Iran and P5+1 Deal?

The Iran nuclear deal was signed between Iran and the P5 (the five permanent members of the UN Security Council) plus Germany and the European Union in Vienna in July 2015. Under the 2015 nuclear deal struck by Iran and six major powers – Britain, China, France, Germany, Russia and the United States, Tehran agreed to limit its nuclear program in return for relief from the US and other economic sanctions.

What Iran promised to do?

The deal also limited the number of centrifuges Iran can run and restricted it to an older, slower model. Iran also reconfigured a heavy-water reactor so it couldn’t produce plutonium and agreed to convert its Fordo enrichment site into a research centre. It granted more access to International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors and allowed it to inspect other sites.

In exchange, world powers lifted the economic sanctions that had kept Iran away from international banking and the global oil trade. It allowed Iran to make purchases of commercial aircraft and reach other business deals. It also unfroze billions of dollars Iran had overseas.

What is the problem?

Fifteen years after the deal, restrictions on Iran’s uranium enrichment and stockpile size will end. The deal’s opponents argue it allows Iran to build a bomb after it expires, something Iran had explicitly promised in the accord not to do. In theory, Iran could have an array of advanced centrifuges ready for use, the limits on its stockpile would be gone, and it could then throw itself wholeheartedly into producing highly enriched uranium.

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